Thank you to everyone who entered the 2018 Boundary Waters Photo Contest! We had hundreds of fantastic pictures to look through and picking the best ones in each of the categories was like hauling a 18-foot aluminum canoe over a 400-rod portage: Very difficult.
If you want another chance at winning or forgot to enter, remember, it’s not to early to start snapping pictures for next year’s photo contest!
40 years of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness
Over the course of this year, you may have noticed that we’ve been talking a lot about the 40th anniversary of the passage of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness Act. Anyone who has had the opportunity to visit the BWCAW and get close to this magnificent wilderness, has been impacted by this piece of legislation.
This act added the final “W” to the BWCA, making it the BWCAW, and a more-fully protected wilderness area.
Commemorating the passage of this bill into law is a chance to remember that the wilderness we love didn’t just happen. It took the efforts of ordinary people to protect and preserve the area and make it into the wilderness we enjoy today.
In 1964, President Lyndon Johnson signed the Wilderness Act.
In the drafting of this bill, Minnesota Senator Hubert Humphrey had been adamant about including the Boundary Waters in the Federal Wilderness System. To do this, Humphrey had to navigate the strong opposition in northern communities. He crafted language that allowed for special exemptions in the Boundary Waters. Where other Wilderness Areas banned all motorized vehicles and had protection from industrial development, some areas of the Boundary Waters would remain open to logging and mining, and well over half of the BWCA was open to motorized vehicles.
It may have been part of the Wilderness Preservation System, but really, it was a Wilderness in name, not management.
You can see how some people would be upset by this. Almost immediately, the tension between those who wanted a true wilderness, protected from developers and motorized travel, and those who want the wilderness available as a resource and opened to a motorized travel, turned into a heated battle.
Lawsuits mounted until it was evident that congress needed to resolve the issue.
Two visions and a compromise
In the political arena, two Minnesotan congressmen (both Democrats) came to represent competing sides of the controversy: Democrat Jim Oberstar of the Eighth District (northeastern Minnesota) and Don Fraser, representing Minneapolis.
Oberstar drafted a bill that divided the BWCA into two “zones.” One zone would have full wilderness protection and another zone would allow for logging and motorized vehicles.
In stark contrast, Fraser introduced a bill that would make the Boundary Waters into a true wilderness area, adding around 35,000 acres to the proposed wilderness.
This set off a series of often contentious public hearings. Compromise bills were presented but went nowhere. Eventually, two attorneys, Chuck Dayton — who represented the environmentalist’s concerns — and Ely attorney Ron Walls sat down to negotiate a compromise.
The proposal they came up with was not popular. Both sides felt as though they had sacrificed too much. Despite reservations, it was this compromise that made its way through the House, passed the Senate and arrived on President Carter’s desk.
The importance of this legacy
To be restored to a true wilderness, the Boundary Waters needed people. This might sound paradoxical, after all, we tend to think of wilderness as a place without any people. But the history of the BWCAW is a history of people working to create a wilderness for future generations.
40 years after the passage of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness Act, it’s easy to take the BWCAW for granted, to think that it was always part of our state, that it was always a protected area.
History could have taken a very different direction.
The creation of BWCAW was mired in controversy. Though much of the disputes surrounding the 1978 bill have died down, tensions still exists between those who advocate for wilderness for its own sake and those who see an economic opportunity in the land.
The wilderness needs friends, it needs people like you to advocate for it.
Though the Boundary Waters has had federal protection for 40 years, it still faces numerous threats. This is why your support is so important.
But ultimately, money and foreign influence seemed to win.
To say that many of us feel frustrated, is an understatement.
On Monday, October 8th, a sign of hope came from Yellowstone.
A BAN NEAR YELLOWSTONE
Secretary of the Interior, Ryan Zinke — who describes himself as “a pro-mining guy” — signed a 20-year ban on new mining claims on 47-square miles of public land on the outskirts of Yellowstone National Park. Considering how Trump’s administration has been so blatantly pro-mining, this move may come as a surprise to many. Indeed, it has upset mining interests in the area.
Yellowstone is, of course, one of the crown jewels of the National Park System. It’s a place treasured by people around the country. It’s a natural area that receives international attention.
Of course, with this 20-year ban on new mines in this area near Yellowstone, one can’t help but hear echos of the proposed 20-year mineral ban in areas adjacent to the BWCAW.
It seems unfair that while Secretary Zinke is all too eager to open Bears Ears, Grand Staircase-Escalante and the BWCAW to mining interests, he gives privileged protection to Yellowstone. We’re happy this protection is in place and realize the dynamics for the mineral ban near Yellowstone are different than they are near the BWCAW. But the news from Yellowstone makes one thing abundantly clear:
To protect the Boundary Waters, we need make the fight against sulfide mining a national issue.
WATER, OUR MOST PRECIOUS RESOURCE
As Minnesotans and midwesterners, many of us have grown up around water. Lakes are everywhere. Sometimes it rains too much! But an abundance of pristine water is nothing to take for granted.
Fresh water shortages affect almost every corner of the globe, and clean water is becoming increasingly scarce. Preserving northern Minnesota’s clean, water-rich environment is more important than other.
Even if there were not a global water crisis, the Boundary Waters would still be one of the most important — and unique — ecosystems in our country.
As such, it is more outrageous than ever that politicians and others would even think about supporting a toxic industry that was guarnateed to pollute these pristine waters.
It’s time to make protecting the Boundary Waters into a national issue.
If you live in Minnesota or Wisconsin or Illinois, talk to out-of-state friends, colleagues and family about the issue. If you live outside of the region, contact local, state and federal legislatures. What’s happening in northeastern Minnesota might not concern them, but we need to make noise about these threatened waters.
In Secretary Zinke’s own words: “I’m a pro-mining guy. I love hardrock. But there are places to mine and places not to mine.”
At a time when major cities are running out of water, when drought threateners large parts of the country, it’s in the nation’s interests to protect the pristine waters of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness.
A hearty thank you to all who attended our Annual Gathering on Friday, September 28.
And if you were not able to make it, thank you for all your support.
As both a toast to the wilderness and a celebration the 40thanniversary of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness Act, the evening was a reminder that the future of our public lands, and of those lakes we love so much, depends on individuals like yourself.
The dinner began with reading a welcoming letter from President Jimmy Carter, who signed the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness Act in 1978. Following this was a video greeting from Vice President Walter Mondale.
Truly, it was an honor to hear from these champions of wilderness.
At the dinner, Chris Knopf, the executive director of Friends of the Boundary Waters Wilderness, outlined our vision of a protected wilderness, open to people from all social and economic background, with strong, economically healthy communities at the gateway.
In addition to this vision, we were honored to hear Congresswoman Betty McCollum give an inspiring speech about what a rare and unique treasure the Boundary Waters is, and how the threat to these waters needs to be a national concern.
It’s likely that you’re reading this on a computer, a phone or some sort of device that’s loaded with copper. From the lights in your home, the pipes under your sink to the renewable energy we so badly need, all of it relies on copper that comes from copper mines.
Try to go a day without using anything that has copper in it.
It’s really hard.
For those of us who oppose copper-sulfide mining in Minnesota, it can be especially troubling to think about how much copper is in our lives. This leads to a question:
Is it hypocritical to oppose copper mining yet still be utterly reliant on copper?
Copper mining and Minnesota
We hear this argument quite a bit from those who support mining. Copper is part of our lives, so much so that according to the U.S. Geological Survey, every American born in 2008 will use 1,309 pounds of copper during their lifetime. That’s a lot.
Though we may consume a huge amount of copper, we are not running out of copper. The world has decades worth of copper that has been dug up, refined and is currently on reserve. There may not be an urgent need to open a new mine, anywhere, let alone one that would pollute Minnesota’s pristine waters for hundreds of years.
New frontiers of copper mining
As of 2016, The Copper Alliance, an organization of the copper mining industry, estimated that with the current rate of demand, the world has a 37-year reserve — or about 740 million tons — of deposits that have been “discovered, evaluated and assessed to be economically profitable.” However, these reserves are still in the ground and need to be extracted before they can be used.
This vast reserve is not the only place where we can get copper.
Because policies and technologies for copper recycling has improved, The Copper Alliance notes that “during the last decade more than 30 percent of annual copper use came from recycled sources.”
Considering how much copper in circulation and can be recycled, The Copper Alliance notes, “This enormous stock of copper, contained in its diverse range of end uses, and equivalent to around nearly 30 years of mine production, is often referred to as society’s ‘urban mine.'”
This suggests that there is a reserve of copper in the urban mine nearly as large as the natural reserve of copper in the earth.
The advent of “urban mining”
A recent study has shown that so-called “urban mining,” the extraction of metals such as copper and gold from e-waste is not only an effective way to manage these growing waste streams, but is more cost effective than virgin mining.
That is, it’s cheaper to extract copper from the televisions people throw away, than to open a mine and extract it from the earth.
Think of it this way: The concentration of copper in the area where Twin Metals wants to mine averages, at best, .66 percent copper. That means it would take about 151 pounds of rock to produce one pound of copper.
The average refrigerator has about five pounds of copper in it and weighs about 300 pounds. There are other appliances that have an even greater copper to weight ratio. Not to mention the copper has already been processed, separated from other impurities and minerals.
The point is it’s a lot easier — and cheaper — to get the copper from an old appliance than from the earth. And the data is now backing this up. From an economic stance, it may very well be cheaper — 13 times cheaper — to mine e-waste than open up a new copper mine.
We need copper but not more copper mines
This brings us back to the original question: Is it hypocritical to depend on copper but oppose copper mining in northeastern Minnesota?
There are alternatives. There are other ways to get copper than through hard-rock mining.
Cheaper, more robust recycling and e-recycling programs could ultimately supply us with the majority of copper we need.
CORRECTION: A previous version of this post mistakingly stated, “If all copper mining stopped around the world, if every smelter and backhoe stopped working, we would not run out of copper until the 2050’s.” This error was based on a misunderstanding of the industry term “reserve.” The mistake has been corrected and we apologize for mischaracterizing this important detail.
Friends of the Boundary Waters Wilderness
401 North Third Street, Suite 290
Minneapolis, MN 55401-1475